Citing and Documenting Sources

Librarian's Corner

Show/ hide panel show / hide

Interactive Tutorials about Plagiarism
 

You Quote it, You Note It!
by Vaughn Memorial Library, Acadia University
You Quote it, You Note It! by Vaughn Memorial Library

 
The Plagiarism Court
by DiMenna-Nyselius Library, Fairfield University
The Plagiarism Court by DiMenna-Nyselius Library
  • About
  • Books vs. Articles | Print vs. Online
  • Citation Software
  • Resources (Print & Web)

Citations - About

Why do you need to write citations?
"Academic writing differs from everyday writing in the fact that it carefully documents its sources through the use of citations, which enables the reader to see what has inspired the writer and to check the validity of their work."

Once you have found sources for your research, you will need to document them giving writers credit for their work and their writings.

Any source of intellectual property that contributes to, informs, or inspires your own work needs to be acknowledged. For example, when you paraphrase or summarize someone's ideas, or use someone's exact words by quoting them, you must acknowledge, by documentation, those works and the author. Taking or using another persons ideas, language, words, etc., as your own is plagiarism.

A "citation" is a short note that documents your source(s) of information. It provides the reader with identifying information so that they are able to access the original source.

Citation styles (MLA, APA, SBL, etc.) vary according to the discipline. For example, an English paper requires MLA style while a psychology paper requires APA style. The content and order of information varies with each style.
Examples:

Ninety-nine Gnats, Nits and NibblersAPA(6th ed.)
Berenbaum, M. (1989). Ninety-nine gnats, nits, and nibblers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Chicago (Author-Date, 15th ed.)
Berenbaum, M. Ninety-nine gnats, nits, and nibblers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989.
MLA (17th ed.)
Berenbaum, M. Ninety-nine Gnats, Nits, and Nibblers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989. Print.
Turabian (6th ed.)
Berenbaum, M. Ninety-Nine Gnats, Nits, and Nibblers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989.
 
(Note: Check formatting guides for identation rules. No indentation is used in the above citations examples.)

Where do you put a citation?
A proper citation has two components for documentation of sources:

WITHIN THE PAPER — This may be a footnote, endnote or parenthetical reference and is placed next to each quote or paraphrase in order to document its source. When you refer to another's work, cite your source.

AT THE END — This is a comprehensive list of all the works used in the research project. It often referred to as works cited (MLA), reference list (APA) or bibliography (Turabian), depending upon the style format that is used.

Important Notes

arrow Format, content, and/or word order for documenting sources within the text differs from that at the end of a paper.

arrow Always follow the guidelines in the appropriate style manual and your professor's instructions.

arrow Refer to the reference print resources for complete citation formats and descriptions. The most current editions of style manuals is on Reserve at the Circulation Desk, 4th floor LRC.

Citations - Books vs. Articles / Online vs. Print

Depending upon the subject you are writing for, identify your sources according to the proper citation style as instructed by your professor. Citations will vary according to style, source type and format.

Citation Style -- What is the required style for the course or discipline? (ACS, APA, MLA, Turabian, SBL) Always consult the print library resources or the association's official web page(s) for exact guidelines.

Type of Source -- What are you citing? (book, journal article, website, interview) For example, citations for books differ from article citations. (Refer to the examples given below.)

    BOOK CITATIONS
    generally include:
  • Author(s)
  • Title
  • Editor, translator, compiler (if applicable)
  • Edition (if it is not the first)
  • Publisher's name
  • Publication place and date
 
    ARTICLE CITATIONS generally include:
  • Author(s) of article
  • Article Title
  • Periodical Title
  • Issue Date
  • Issue/volume Number
  • Page Numbers

Format -- How was it delivered? (print, Web, audio/visual)
Book and article citations for an online resource, such as library ebook or article databases, may require more documentation than for the hard copy (print) resources. You may need to include the following:

  • Database name
  • Service Provider (for example, EBSCO or ebrary)
  • Protocol (for example, "http") and full URL
  • Date of access

Citations - Free Citation Management Software

Most ORU databases include features that create citations for your selected journal articles, books, ebooks, etc., to save or copy and paste into a bibliography. For ebrary, EBSCO databases, Sage databases, WorldCat, Wall Street Journal, and Credo Reference see Key Points: Citation Tools (opens in a new window).

The sites below let you fill in forms to create formatted citations, effectively manage research documents, and more.

BibMeBibMe.org 
Use auto-fill mode to enter a book title or journal article and it auto-completes and formats the citation. Manual entry modes also available. Offers save option with login. MLA, APA, Chicago, or Turabian. www.bibme.org
EasyBib
Automatic bibliography and citation maker. Free MLA version with option to purchase upgraded version for APA and Chicago/Turabian formatting. Cite a book, website, newspaper, journals, database, and more. Website has advertisements. EasyBib www.easybib.com
KnightCite
MLA, APA and Chicago formats. Easy form to fill out. Provided by The Hekman Library, Calvin Calvin College. www.calvin.edu/library/knightcite/
Landmark's Citation Machine
MLS, APA, Turabian and Chicago formats. Includes ad's.
http://citationmachine.net/
Mendeley
"Free reference manager and academic social network that can help you organize your research, collaborate with others online, and discover the latest research"
http://www.mendeley.com/
NoodleBib Express
Step-by-step questionnaire process to create a citation in MLA, APA or Chicago. noodletools.com/login.php
SBL Citation BuilderPitts Theology Library: SBL Citation Builder
"SBL style is designed for students and scholars writing in the disciplines of ancient Near Eastern studies, Biblical studies, and studies of early Christianity." www.pitts.emory.edu/services/tools/citationbuilder/index
Qiqqa
Create citations, footnotes and biliographies; manage your documents.
http://www.qiqqa.com/
SourceAid Citation Builder
APA, MLA, Chicago, Council of Science Editors. Concise and easy form. www.sourceaid.com/
Zotero
Works with Firefox browser. "free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share your research sources."
http://www.zotero.org/
Always refer to the reference print resources for complete citation formats and descriptions.

Citation - Resources (Print and Web)

Common citation styles used at ORU are listed below along with publication information and selected Web resources. The most current edition of a print style manual is on Reserve at the Circulation Desk, 4th floor LRC. If you need further assistance, inquire at the Reference Desk. Always refer to the reference print resources for complete citation formats and descriptions.

ACS
ACS Style GuideACS Style Guide: Effective Communication of Scientific Information (An American Chemical Society Publication)
Call number QD8.5.A25 2006 LRC-R
ACS Books: Reference Style Guidelines
http://pubs.acs.org/books/references.shtml
Provides sample citations.
Writing Tools - Chemistry Library (UW Madison Libraries)
http://chemistry.library.wisc.edu/writing/acs-style-guidelines.html
 
American Psychological Association (APA)
Publication Manual - APAPublication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), 5th ed. Call number BF76.7.P83
APA Style.org: Electronic References
http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html
APA Style.org: Frequently Asked Questions
http://www.apastyle.org/faqs.html
Using American Psychological Association (APA) Format
(Purdue University Online Writing Lab)
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_apa.html
Using Principles of APA Style to Cite and Document Sources
(Bedford/St. Martin's ONLINE!)
http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/cite6.html
 
Modern Language Association (MLA)
MLA Style ManualMLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 5th ed.
Call number LB2369.G53
MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 2nd ed.
Call number PN147.G1444 LRC-R
Frequently Asked Questions About MLA Style
http://www.mla.org/style_faq
A Guide for Writing Research Papers Based on Modern Language Association (MLA) Documentation
(Capital Community College) - http://cctc.commnet.edu/mla/index.shtml
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's)
MLA HandbookUsing MLA Style to Cite and Document Sources
(Bedford/St. Martin's ONLINE! by Andrew Harnak and Eugene Kleppinger)
http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/cite5.html
MLA Citation Style Examples
(University of New Brunswick Libraries)
http://www.lib.unb.ca/instruction/MLAcitation.html
Using Modern Language Association (MLA) Format
(The OWL at Purdue - Online Writing Labs)
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_mla.htm
 
Turabian
A Manual for Writers... TurabianA Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed. Call number LB2369.T8
Citing Sources in Academic Writing compiled by Brian P. Irwin
http://homepage.mac.com/bpirwin/knox/PDF%20Files/Citing.pdf
Covenant Theological Seminary: Covenant Style Guide
http://www.covenantseminary.edu/pdf/CovenantStyleGuide.pdf
Turabian Style - Sample Footnote and Bibliographic Entries (6th edition)
(Bridgewater State College)
http://www.bridgew.edu/Library/turabian.cfm
Turabian Style Guide
(University of Southern Mississippi Libraries)
http://www.lib.usm.edu/help/style_guides/turabian.html
 
Society of Biblical Literature (SBL)
SBL Handbook of StyleThe SBL Handbook of Style: For Ancient Near Eastern, Biblical, and Early Christian Studies,Call number PN147.S26
Pitts Theology Library: SBL Citation Builder
http://www.pitts.emory.edu/services/tools/citationbuilder/index.cfm
Student Supplement to the SBL Handbook of Style
http://www.sbl-site.org/assets/pdfs/SBLHS_SS92804_Revised_ed.pdf
SBL Style
(Lycoming College, Snowden Library)
http://www.lycoming.edu/library/instruction/SBL.htm
 
Other Resources
CAA Publications: Art Bulletin Style Guide
Provided by College Art Association
http://www.collegeart.org/caa/publications/AB/ABStyleGuide.htm
Librarians' Index to the Internet (Style Guides)
http://www.lii.org
Research and Documentation Online by Diana Hacker star
http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc
 
 
Related guides:
Plagiarism
Babylonian Talmud: Write the Citation